Andrew Appel

American computer scientist
Andrew Appel
Andrew Apple (FloC 2006).jpg
Andrew Appel in 2006
  • Kenneth Appel (father)

Andrew Wilson Appel (born 1960) is the Eugene Higgins Professor of computer science at Princeton University. He is especially well-known because of his compiler books, the Modern Compiler Implementation in ML (ISBN 0-521-58274-1) series, as well as Compiling With Continuations (ISBN 0-521-41695-7). He is also a major contributor to the Standard ML of New Jersey compiler, along with David MacQueen, John H. Reppy, Matthias Blume and others[1] and one of the authors of Rog-O-Matic.


Andrew Appel is the son of mathematician Kenneth Appel, who proved the Four-Color Theorem in 1976.[2] Appel graduated summa cum laude with an A.B. in physics from Princeton University in 1981 after completing a senior thesis, titled "Investigation of galaxy clustering using an asymptotically fast N-body algorithm", under the supervision of Nobel laureate James Peebles.[3] He later received a Ph.D. (computer science) at Carnegie-Mellon University, in 1985.[4] He became an ACM Fellow in 1998, due to his research of programming languages and compilers.[5]

In 1981, Appel developed a better approach to the n-body problem in linearithmic instead of quadratic time.[6]

From July 2005 to July 2006, he was a visiting researcher at the Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique (INRIA), Rocquencourt, France, on sabbatical from Princeton University.[citation needed]

Andrew Appel campaigns on issues related to the interaction of law and computer technology. He testified in the penalty phase of the Microsoft antitrust case in 2002.[7] He is opposed to the introduction of some computerized voting machines, which he deemed untrustworthy.[8] In 2007, he received attention when he purchased a number of voting machines for the purpose of investigating their security.[9]


  1. ^ SML/NJ Team
  2. ^ "In Memoriam: Kenneth Appel". Archived from the original on 2020-07-23. Retrieved 2020-09-07.
  3. ^ Investigation of galaxy clustering using an asymptotically fast N-body algorithm. 1981.
  4. ^ Appel, Andrew (1985). Compile-time Evaluation and Code Generation for Semantics-directed Compilers (PhD). Carnegie Mellon University.
  5. ^ "Andrew W. Appel". Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  6. ^ An Investigation of Galaxy Clustering Using an Asymptotically Fast N-Body Algorithm. Andrew W. Appel, Senior Thesis, Princeton University, 1981.
  7. ^ "TECHNOLOGY; Threat Is Seen to Microsoft Windows", The New York Times, May 2, 2007
  8. ^ Andrew, Appel (2006-06-14). "Ceci n'est pas une urne" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  9. ^ Jones, Richard G. (February 13, 2007), "Suit Seeks To Ensure Ballot Safety In New Jersey", The New York Times

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